A
Adhesive lamination: A process of lamination in which individual layers of multi-layer packaging materials are layered together by an adhesive.

Aluminum foil: is an important material in laminates due to its widespread use in flexible packaging. It provides barrier protection against light, oxygen, moisture, gases, and other factors that could affect the content of your products.

B
Barrier: This is used to describe the packaging’s ability to protect it from deterioration of moisture, gas, and vapor. Heat, light, and oxygen through the packaging material.

Base Film: The original form in which a film exists before coating or laminating.

Biodegradable: This is an environmentally friendly solution for reducing waste materials. Because they are decomposed by bacteria and other living organisms.

Blade Line: The doctor blade on a rotogravure press develops an imperfection causing a line or streak in the print on the piece at this imperfection.

Bleed: The printed image or color extends beyond the trimmed margin of the finished printed piece.

Blister: A small raised area, caused by the expansion of trapped gas or other fluid beneath the metal surface. In lamination, small localized areas are free or freed from adhesion.

Blown films: are plastic films fabricated from synthetic resins like polyethylene using the blown process. This process extrudes the molten resin through a circular shape and air pressure is used to expand the film into desired dimensions. It is then left to cool to solidify the polymer.

BOPP film(biaxially-oriented polypropylene): is an alternative polypropylene that is stretched flat. Mainly used in applications that need moisture resistance, optical clarity, and high tensile strength.

C
Cell: In terms of printing plates. It is a small etched or engraved depression in gravure cylinder plates that carries out the ink.

Child-resistant zipper: It is a zipper that restricts the accessibility of a child in packaging. This zipper is designed to ensure that children are protected from harmful products.

Clarity: The degree of transparency of flexible packaging.

CMYK printing: (C – Cyan, M – Magenta, Y – Yellow, K – Black) The acronym for the four process color inks that use different combinations & amounts of 4 ink colors to achieve a photographic-like effect.

Coating: A coating applied to provide protective, decorative, pressure-sensitive, waterproof, or heat-sealable qualities to the base sheet.

Coefficient of Friction (C.O.F.): The amount of slip exhibited when one surface is dragged against an adjacent surface. Static COF is the force required to begin the structure moving. Kinetic COF is the force required to maintain structure movement at the test pull speed. Hi Slip = less than 0.2, Medium Slip = .2 – .5, Low Slip = more than 0.5 (kinetic) Commonly referred to as the “slipperiness” of plastic films and laminates.

Coextrusion: Creation of a single film through the extrusion of two or more layers simultaneously. It uses two different molten resins creating an identical laminate. That has distinct properties from its components.

Coffee Valve: A pressure relief valve added to coffee pouches to allow natural unwanted gasses to be vented whilst maintaining the freshness of the coffee. Also called an aroma valve as it allows you to smell the product through the valve.

Cohesion: That form of attraction by which the particles of a body are united throughout its mass.

Cold Seal: A process that utilizes pressure to seal flexible packaging without the use of heat.

Color Fastness: The measurement of the permanence of a color in its resistance to sunlight and various chemicals as may be expressed.

Color Management: The process of translating specific color information from the computer screen image, through prepress, plate-making, printing presses, and finally to a substrate in such a manner that color accuracy is maintained at acceptable levels throughout.

Compostable: Compostable food packaging is composed of plant-based recycled materials that require less carbon to produce. Decreasing waste products in landfill areas while nourishing the earth with life-sustaining nutrients.

Converter: Processing raw packaging stocks into their more developed state by the use of printing. gluing, laminating, etc.
Core: the film is etched on a paper tube.

CPP (RCPP): A polypropylene film with a glossy finish that is more durable than the PE and has a high heat resistance with heat sealable properties. This is used mainly as a heat seal layer in retort packaging.

Cure or Curing: Conversion by chemical reaction of a wet coating or printing ink film to a solid film.

Cylinder plates: In gravure printing, the image is engraved on a cylinder in offset printing and flexography, it uses a rotating press.

D
Dead Fold: Fold in packaging material that will remain in place without sealing, as in the case of folds made in soft lead foil or aluminum foil.

Delamination: Separation or splitting of laminate layers caused by lack of or inadequate adhesion, or by mechanical disruption such as peeling or shearing forces.

Die line: is used for the final layout design of your printed product. This a diagram in a flattened form that presents you the possible folds and cut lines of your packaging design.

Digital printing: uses a method of transferring documents from a desktop or any storage device. Directly to a printing substrate machine that receives graphics and text output.

Doypack: This is one of the most common styles for pouch bottoms. It has a U-shape gusset that uses the bottom seal as its base to stand up. Doy packs design has two flat sheets secured together along their sides with a W fold in its top edge until the bottom. The W Fold opens when the pouch is filled which provides the stability of the doypack to stand upright on its own.

Drying process: The drying process of flexible packaging is a crucial part that can affect the final quality of the product. Hot air dryers are essential for drying water-based or solvent-based inks. Because the heated air circulates the surface until it is completely dried.

E
Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA): A polar copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate, retaining some of the properties of polyethylene but with increased flexibility, elongation, and impact resistance. EVA is frequently specified as the extrusion coating on polypropylene, aluminum foil, and poly(ethylene terephthalate), to provide good heat seals at high converting rates, or as the adhesion layer in some laminates.

Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH): Can be regarded as a copolymer of polyethylene in which varying amounts of the -OH functional group have been incorporated. A typical packaging EVOH is about 20 to 35% ethylene. EVOH is one of the best polymeric oxygen barriers available to packagers. However, its susceptibility to water requires that for most applications it be laminated or co-extruded into a protective sandwich with materials that will keep the EVOH layer away from water.

Euro slot: A horizontal slot punched into the closed end of the bag. This allows the bag to be hung on a display shelf when it is filled.

Extensibility: the ability of paper or plastic to be stretched without breaking.

Extrusion Lamination: A laminating process in which individual layers of multi-layer packaging materials are laminated to each other by extruding a thin layer of molten synthetic resin (such as polyethylene) between the layers.

Eye marker or eye spot: A small rectangular printed area usually located near the edge of a web or design, to activate an automatic electronic position regulator for controlling the register of the printed design with subsequent equipment or operations.

F
Faraday Cage: Provides both interior and exterior protection from static and other charges. Like Anit-Static and Static Shielding Bags.

Fin Seal: Also known as Fold over seam its interior edges are sealed together and the fin is folded over.

Flat Bottom Pouch: looks like a box or brick style that has gussets on the left side, right side, and gusset on the bottom.

Flexible Packaging: A package or container made of flexible or easily yielding materials that, when filled and closed, can be readily changed in shape. A term normally applied to bags, pouches, or wraps made of materials ranging in thickness from 13 to 75 micrometers (0.0b0á to 0.003 inch) such as paper, plastic film, foil, or combinations of these.

Flexographic Printing: A method of printing using flexible rubber or photopolymer printing plates in which the image to be printed stands out in relief. Fluid ink metered by an engraved roll is applied to the raised portions of the printing plate and then transferred to the substrate.

Foil (AL): A thin gauge (6-12 microns) aluminum foil laminated to plastic films to provide maximum oxygen, aroma, and water vapor barrier properties. Although it is by far the best barrier material, it is increasingly being replaced by metalized films, (see MET-PET, MET-OPP, and VMPET) because of cost.

Form-Fill-Seal (FFS): A packaging machine that forms, fills, closes, and seals a package in one continuous or intermittent motion operation. Flexible packaging stock fed from a roll is folded to the desired package shape and stabilized by heat sealing. The product is placed into the formed package, and the remaining opening is sealed. Machines can be configured so that the stock travels horizontally through the machine (horizontal form-fill seal, HFFS) or vertically through the machine (vertical form-fill-seal, VFFS).

G
Gauge: A term used in referring to the thickness. Here are some examples and equivalents:
1 inch = 25.4 mm = 2.54 cm
1 micron = one-millionth of a meter
1 mil = 1/1000 of an inch = .001”
1 mil = 25.4 microns
100 gauge = 1 mil
80 gauge = 8/10 mil = .0008 inches

Gas Chromatography: An instrumental method of accurately determining the composition of volatile solvents and oils, and their residual presence in materials such as laminates or plastics.

Glassine: Smooth, dense-structured super-calendered paper, translucent or opaque, made from heavily beaten fibrillated chemical wood pulp. Grease-resistant, tough, pliable.

Glossy Printing: This makes the product vapor-resistant, smooth to hold, and appealing to look at. Also, it gives the product a bright finish because the bag can reflect to light like with matt printing.

Glue Lamination: A process of using either water-based or solvent-based glue applied to a substrate such as paper, film, or foil to laminate 2 or more substrates together.

Gravure Printing: Gravure is abbreviated from the term rotogravure. With gravure printing an image is etched on the surface of a metal plate, the etched area is filled with ink, then the plate is rotated on a cylinder that transfers the image to the film or other material. Gravure printing is ideal for printing in long runs and contributes to higher printing speeds. Gives excellent reproduction of detail to the image printed.

Gusset: the fold in the side or bottom of the pouch that allows it to expand when products are inserted.

H
HDPE: High density, (0.95-0.965) polyethylene. Has much higher stiffness, higher temperature resistance, and much better water vapor barrier properties than LDPE, but it is considerably hazier.

Heat-Seal Layer: A heat-sealable innermost layer in plastic packaging films and laminates. Can be either adhesive laminated or extrusion coated onto a non-sealable film (or foil).

Horizontal form/fill/seal (HFFS): A one-stop packaging machine that forms, fills, and seals a package at a constant and undisrupted pace. The roll-fed film is horizontally folded to suit your packaging shape and secured by a heat seal.

I
Ink: The ink in flexible packaging amplifies the graphic appearance of the packaging preserving the design during the production process, shipping, and consumer consumption.

K
Kraft paper: Is made from a whole wood pulp paper. This is a composite material used in kraft paper packaging making it more in line with sustainable packaging.

K-corner bottom: has a seal rising from a 30-degree angle from every side. It is equipped with a protective seal to prevent heavy products from filling inside the bag. This can hold products weighing from 1 up to 5 pounds.

L
Lamination: Composite product consisting of two or more sheets or films joined together, with glue, adhesive, wax, etc.
LDPE or PE (Low-Density Polyethylene): A resin base for making a film with a density of 0.92 to 0.934. Porous and somewhat stretchable. Good clarity. Used mainly for heat-seal ability and bulk in packaging.
LLDPE(Linear Low Density Polyethylene): Tougher than LDPE and has better heat-seal strength, but has higher haze.

M
Matte BOPP (Biaxially oriented polypropylene): A matte variant of polypropylene with a fuzzy film surface effect that’s stretched flat, used for applications that require moisture resistance, optical clarity, and high tensile strength.

MET-PET(Metalized Polyethylene Terephthalate): It has the same characteristics as a PET but with an aluminum coating to provide a more enhanced feature for oxygen and water vapor barrier. However, it is not transparent.

Mylar™: Mylar is a registered trademark of the Dupont-Teijin Corporation. Is the industrial name for the polyester film (PET) of this company. A polyester film that exhibits exceptional mechanical strength and dimensional stability and is a staple of multilayer packaging for a wide range of applications.

N
Nylon: Polyamide resins, with very high melting points, excellent clarity, and stiffness.

O
Offset Printing: The process of printing by indirect image transfer, especially by using a metal or paper plate to ink a smooth rubber cylinder that transfers the ink to the paper.

One-way valve: A valve with a one-way flow that releases carbon dioxide from the packaging without letting oxygen or moisture in.

Opaque: Not transparent.

P
PE(Polyethylene): The most common and environmentally friendly type of plastic, used primarily for plastic bags and packaging.

PET(Polyethylene Terephthalate): Biaxial-oriented PET film is used in packaging laminates because it provides strength, stiffness, and temperature resistance. It is usually combined with other films for heat sealability and improved barrier properties.

PP(Polypropylene): Often used as an outer layer of flexible packaging because of its durability and heat resistance in the packaging.

R
Resin: These are polymers that are made into flexible packaging.

Rewind: To wind again; especially the winding of a roll of film after printing, slitting, etc.

Roll stock: A roll of flexible packaging film that is printed and laminated.

Q
Quad Seal Bag: is a type of flexible packaging designed to stand alone on the shelf. They have a flat bottom pouch that allows them to stand up on the shelves. Its two side gusset and panels are connected to four vertical seals allowing you more branding and printing options.

S
Screen printing: uses a woven piece of fabric to transfer designs on your Product packaging. Also, the ink can adhere to a wide range of materials like paper, glass, ceramics, wood, and even metal.

Shaped pouch: A shaped pouch is very popular to use in custom printing to accommodate the shapes and images you want on your product. It has high-quality barrier and puncture-resistant materials that are sustainable so it is good for the environment.

Slitting: The cutting of a large master roll into small rolls used.

Solvent-free: is a substance that contains no or little solvent, making it environmentally friendly.

Spout pouch: This is ideally convenient for packaging small quantities of solid and liquid food products like juices and condiments.

Stand-up pouch: This is a flexible pouch design in which the bottom part is gusseted to provide a sufficient base to support the pouch, making it stand up for display or use.

Stick pack: is designed for single-serve products. It is designed for consumers as it is small and has a tear-up feature so that consumers can open it at any time.

Substrate: A film to which subsequent layers or coatings are added.

T
Tear notch: This is an optional feature added for the consumer’s convenience. It allows the packaging to be accessible to the consumer anytime without needing to use scissors or cutting materials.

Tear resistance: Tear resistance is the force you need to tear a plastic film, textile, paper, or board.

Tensile strength: The amount of pull a film can withstand without tearing apart or stretching.

Three-side seal bag: A simple, effective, and low-cost bag offering excellent accessibility and shelf capacity. It is made up of laminated foil, folded by a machine, sealed on both sides and left open at the top/bottom to fill the product.

Tin ties: are becoming more popular because of the protection they offer for your product. This allows you to close the bag tightly and conveniently to keep your products fresh for a longer period.

U
UV protection: A type of printing finish incorporated into the flexible packaging to absorb UV radiation.

V
Vacuum packaging: This is a process of removing the air from the packaging and sealing it tightly.

Vapor barrier: Barrier materials in flexible packaging prevent infiltration of moisture, water vapor, oil, oxygen, gases, and light to maintain the quality of packaged products

Velcro zipper: It contains strips of thin plastic sheets on both sides that have tiny loops and flexible hooks on each side. When pressed together they can be tightly sealed, you can pull it apart to open it.

VMPET(Metalized PET or MET-PET): A vacuum metalized polyester film that deposits a thin layer of aluminum in a PET film substrate.

W
Water Vapor Transmission Rate or WVTR: The steady rate where water vapor permeates through a film of temperature and humidity.

Window: Allows the product to be seen and easily identified by the consumers.

Water-based ink: These are screen-printing eco-friendly water-soluble inks that are much thinner when printed and adhere to fibers better.

Z
Zipper Pouch: A flexible plastic pouch with a molded-in-place sealing device wherein a projecting rib or fin is inserted into a mating channel to effect a closure. A zipper seal can be repeatedly opened and closed.